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Friday, March 30, 2012

Hallmarq Standing Equine MRI for Hoof Puncture Wounds: Is MR Scanning Necessary? Will It Help?


Mystery lameness? Puncture wounds take some detective work sometimes. This lame draft horse was referred to Cornell University’s College of Veterinary Medicine Equine Hospital. It was a long drive for his owners, only to find out that a nail was embedded in the foot, invisible to everyone who had looked at the horse. When the nail came loose in the winter shoe and finally dropped out (note empty nail hole), the horse probably stepped on it. (© Michael Wildenstein photo collection)
A puncture wound in the foot can be a life-threatening and career-ending injury for a horse. Once again, the seemingly rock-hard protection of the hoof capsule proves to be not as tough as it looks. Horses step on nails, cactus thorns, shards of wood and metal, fence stakes, shavings bag staples and any and every other thing in their paths.

All those objects--and many more--are routinely revealed on the radiographs of lame horses, or removed from the frogs and heel bulbs of horses by farriers and veterinarians.

A sharp object at just the right angle can penetrate the sole or frog and enter the foot, injuring vulnerable structures like the coffin joint, navicular bursa or deep digital flexor tendon.

Did Spectacular Bid lose the biggest race of his
life --and the Triple Crown--because
he stepped
on a safety pin?
It would take a special shoe
made by the legendary Jack Reynolds to get him
racing again.
Just ask Spectacular Bid. The racehorse hero of 1979 was on the fast track to win the Triple Crown. On the morning of the third leg of the Crown, the Belmont Stakes, the immensely popular gray stepped on a safety pin from his bandages in his stall, according to his trainer, who pulled the pin out and decided not to scratch the horse because he wasn’t lame.

The rest, as they say, is history: Spectacular Bid did run in the Belmont that day, but the celebrated Derby and Preakness winner ran the full mile and a half without ever changing leads, according to his veterinarian. Maybe that pin left its mark after all.

A foot wound lameness exam's goal is to avoid serious infection by collecting as much information as possible about the wound, what caused it, and when/how it occurred. Radiographic evaluation using contrast medium can be effective to show injury to the deep digital flexor tendon. Taking a radiograph with a probe inserted in the channel of the wound is sometimes an option, but many veterinarians prefer to radiograph the foot with the original offender still in place, so that the exact tract can be identified.

Can puncture wounds have an impact? Just look in the history books: During World War I, veterinary records showed that 500 British horses per week were lost from service because of lameness traced to puncture wounds in their feet on the front in France.

Recent advances in treatment of puncture wounds
includes the
use of sterile maggot debridement
therapy as used in this case

of a puncture wound in the front half of the foot.
(Scott
Morrison case and image)
Last month the veterinary world received new data about puncture wounds with the publication of a paper compiling the results of standing MRI scans completed on 55 cases of penetrating sole wounds at five equine hospitals in Great Britain. Carolina Urraca del Junco, DVM, CertVDI, MRCVS, a diagnostic imaging resident at the University of Edinburgh, compiled and analyzed the details of the cases from the hospitals, all of which were equipped with Hallmarq standing equine MRI units. She reported that MR scanning of the animal in the first week after the injury increased the chances of a full return to exercise, and that the standing MRI was, of all diagnostic imaging methods, the most reliable.

“Magnetic resonance imaging findings of equine solar penetration wounds” by Urraca and Tim S. Mair, Sarah E. Powell, Peter I. Milner, Alex F. Font, Tobias Schwarz, and Martin P. Weaver creates a combined resource of cases treated at the University as well as at Bell Equine Veterinary Clinic, Rossdales Equine Hospital and Diagnostic Centre, The Philip Leverhulme Equine Hospital at the University of Liverpool, and Bearl Equine Clinic, all in Great Britain. The paper is published in the January-February 2012 edition of the journal Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound.


This little video was created by Dr. Rich Redding at North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine. It's a set of MRIs used to diagnose a puncture wound that contacted the deep digital flexor tendon, but they have been speeded up for impact.

The 55 cases had variations in the amount of time that had passed since the injury had occurred. They also varied in the treatment and diagnostic regimen that had been employed. Several of the horses were euthanized because of the severe, irreparable damage done to structures inside the foot.

The advantage of being able to see both soft tissue and bone in an MRI becomes particularly critical in evaluating a horse that has suffered a puncture wound. Urraca observed that 35 of the 55 horses had a visible tract, from 10 to 85mm long, in MR images.

Of particular importance was that the tract’s visibility on an MR scan was more likely when the injury was less than one week old. In horses where the tract was visible, the extent of the injury and the structures affected was assessed readily.

If the MR scan is done early, the short time lapse means that it will show “the tract filled with edema or hemorrhage, and you'll be able to follow it and look at the areas it has 'touched' for treatment,” Urraca said “You will prevent sepsis (infection) etc. If is too late--more than one week--you may only see the damage in the structures, and you cannot prevent anything any more.”

Farrier treatment is critical to success puncture wounds. This horse’s punctured foot will be supported by a handmade bar shoe, which has been drilled and tapped for a screw-on hospital plate. (© Mike Wildenstein Photo Library)
One reason why puncture wounds are so dangerous to horses is that an injury to the frog can be “invisible” to the naked eye. If a horse steps on a staple or metal stake, the frog tissue will simply close around the wound. An object can become embedded in the frog and not be visible at all. In other cases, a piece of wood or metal might break off and become embedded inside the frog. Wood fragments are difficult to view in diagnostic images of any type.

In the 35 horses whose MR sessions included scanning in three planes, the transverse plane provided the best visualization of the lesion for viewing the deep digital flexor tendon and ligaments of the foot. This view was especially helpful in evaluating injuries that included hemorrhage within the foot, which shows up on the MR scan.

In the transverse plane, an MRI shows an injured foot 15 days after penetration. It is possible to see damage to the deep digital flexor tendon (arrow). The MR scan set would include progressive “slices” through the foot to show how far into the foot this injury extended. (Carolina Urraco image)
On the technical side, the paper commented that the highly sensitive T2*W sequence is the best to see hemorrhage in the foot, "ideally with an orientation parallel to the sole,” according to Urraca.

Urraca’s study gives added weight to pleas from veterinarians for horse owners to consider any type of puncture wound a potential emergency. After the paper was published, Urraca commented how her research might affect horse owner actions if they find an object stuck in a horse’s foot.

Advice from some clinicians is that horse owners should not remove the object, if at all possible. This is because the tract might not be visible on a radiograph, but the object would be.

“There are two sides of the story,” Urraca commented via email, saying that it “is quite dangerous to leave it in place--it may get deeper, and it may tract contaminants--and also, as I found during my study, some horses step repeatedly on the nail until it finally lodges in a location. Therefore, leaving it in does not provide all the information, as there will be more than one tract.

“If there is MRI available in the practice or close by, the clinician would need to remove the object to do the MRI,” she continued, “and the tract/s will be very easily seen if is done early enough, before the tract seals with granulation tissue."

MR scan of a puncture wound one day after the injury occurred. (Urraca study image)
MR scanning may make it possible for veterinarians to determine sooner if surgery is needed, and surgery may be more successful if it is done earlier instead of later.

Horses aren’t always lame at the time of injury, and the injury is not always visible, but the potential consequences are immense. While most horses experience mild lameness, short-term infection and a full recovery to soundness, severe injuries benefit from earlier treatment or surgery and run a high risk of extended infection.

Unlike “down” MR systems for equine imaging, Hallmarq “standing” MRI scanning does not require the horse to be under anesthesia to obtain the images; anesthesia may well be required if surgery is required, however.

Are puncture wounds dramatic? Just ask anyone who was at the 2000 FEI Dressage World Cup final in The Netherlands.

No puncture wound case was more dramatic than what occurred that day to Rozzie Ryan, who had traveled all the way from Australia with her horse, Excellent. On the way into the arena, the horse stepped on a roofing nail. He immediately went lame and was unable to perform his test. He left the arena and headed directly to the veterinary hospital at Utrecht University; there he had foot surgery, half a world away from home.

A horse’s soundness, career, usefulness and even its life are at stake when a puncture wound in the foot is suspected. Every possible tool will and should be put to work to determine the nature and extent of the injury. Standing MRI has proven itself a valuable tool that may help ensure that horses who need surgery get it--and that possibly some who don’t need it will receive some good news sooner instead of later.

Free download: Carolina Urraca’s paper can be read online in its entirety or downloaded on the web site of Veterinary Radiology and Ultrasound.

Hallmarq Standing MRI Services are available at these sites in North America:
1. Alamo Pintado Equine Medical Center, Los Olivos, CA;  2.Arizona Equine Medical & Surgical, Gilbert, AZ; 3. B.W. Furlong & Associates, Oldwick, NJ; 4. California Equine Orthopedics, San Marcos, CA; 5. Cleveland Equine Clinic, Ravenna, OH; 6. Equigen, Cochranville, PA; 8. Equine Medical Center of Ocala, Ocala, FL; 8. Fairfield Equine, Newtown, CT; 9. Littleton Large Animal Clinic, Littleton, CO; 10. Marion DuPont Scott Equine Medical Ctr, Leesburg, VA; 11. McKee Pownall Equine Service, Campbellville, ON CANADA; 12. Northwest Equine Performance, Mulino, OR; 13. San Dieguito Equine Group, San Marcos, CA; 14. South Shore Equine Clinic, Plympton, MA; 15. University of California at Davis, Davis, CA; 16. Wisconsin Equine Clinic, Oconomowoc, WI; 17. University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK, Canada.
Click on the colored type to go to the web site of that hospital.

To learn more about Hallmarq Veterinary Imaging and standing MRI technology for horses:
• Visit and "like" the Hallmarq Equine MRI Facebook page;
• Follow @HallmarqMRI on Twitter;
• Subscribe to the hallmarqvetimaging channel on YouTube.com;
• Watch for a growing equine distal limb Hallmarq MRI image gallery on Flickr.com;
• Visit the Hallmarq.net web site. (Plan to spend some time there!)


To learn more about puncture wounds:
• New York Times report from 1979 about Spectular Bid's puncture wound
• Rozzie Ryan recalls Excellent's World Cup puncture wound
• Hoof Puncture Wounds in British Horses in World War I
 Equine Wound Management, Second Edition by Ted Stashak
• Equine MRI edited by Rachel Murray; chapter on clinical foot and pastern cases by Andy Bathe

"Use of magnetic resonance imaging to assess soft tissue damage in the foot following penetrating injury in 3 horses" (2005) by Kinns and Mair from Equine Veterinary Education




© Fran Jurga and Hoofcare Publishing; Fran Jurga's Hoof Blog is a between-issues news service for subscribers to Hoofcare and Lameness Journal. Please, no use without permission. You only need to ask. This blog may be read online at the blog page, checked via RSS feed, or received via a digest-type email (requires signup in box at top right of blog page). To subscribe to Hoofcare and Lameness (the journal), please visit the main site, www.hoofcare.com, where many educational products and media related to equine lameness and hoof science can be found. Questions or problems with this blog? Send email to blog@hoofcare.com.  
Follow Hoofcare + Lameness on Twitter: @HoofcareJournal
Read this blog's headlines on the Hoofcare + Lameness Facebook Page
 
Disclosure of Material Connection: Hoofcare Publishing received direct compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned, other than Hoofcare Publishing. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

The Literary Hoof: "Great Expectations" on PBS Is a Classic Tour de Forge


Who's teaching whom? You'll have to read Great Expectations to learn what the young apprentice and his master were studying here. (Image scanned by Philip V. Allingham of Victorian Web.)
Great Expectations by Charles Dickens was written before subtitles became commonly used. If it had one, it would be "Or: Be careful what you wish for".

If you have never read Great Expectations (when I was in high school it was required reading for English classes) by Charles Dickens, consider picking it up now, especially if you have children of your own. Make it a family project to read it together, maybe even aloud. The forge images will come alive. So will the characters in the forge.

Here's a preview of the 2011 BBC miniseries starring Douglas Booth as Pip, which will be aired in the USA beginning Sunday, April 1, 2012 on PBS Masterpiece.

That's right: The classic Victorian novel of an orphan's fate begins and ends in a forge, and it could be said that it truly is a tale of seeing that forge in two very different lights. I think of it as a perfect allegory for T.S. Eliot's great quote:  "We shall not cease from exploration, and the end of all our exploring will be to arrive where we started and know the place for the first time."

Actor Shaun Dooley plays blacksmith Joe Gargery, one of Charles Dickens' rare sympathetic heroes, in the BBC film of Great Expectations that will air on PBS in April, beginning this Sunday. "I have often thought of him...like the steam-hammer that can crush a man or pat an egg-shell, in his combination of strength with gentleness," is how Pip described him. (BBC photo)
Like War Horse, Great Expectations is a book that has been adapted into a film and a play. But it's also been a film many times over, starring some great and not-so-great actors. And it's about to become one again: Hollywood and the BBC both re-discovered the book last year and have brought forward films--one for television and one for the cinema--at almost the same time.

For the high-dollar new Hollywood version, Jeremy Irvine, the star of War Horse, has signed on to play Pip, the once-future farrier of Charles Dickens' Great Expectations in the cinema version. He had to learn to ride a horse for War Horse; for Great Expectations, he had to learn to shoe one.

The movie blogs are reporting that Irvine even went to farrier school in England to get his hammer technique down.
Jason Flemyng as blacksmith Joe Gargery
But what about Jason Flemyng, who plays the wise and kind Joe Gargery in the new film? He must definitely have gone to farrier school!

Joe's not the only smith in Great Expectations. There's also the evil journeyman, Orlick.

Orlick just doesn't fit in. And he sees young Pip as a threat to his job security.

Dickens writes: “He was a broad-shouldered loose-limbed swarthy fellow of great strength, never in a hurry..he always slouched, locomotively, with his eyes on the ground; and when accosted or otherwise required to raise them, he looked up in a half-resentful, half-puzzled way….”

The kindly blacksmith Joe Gargery finally lost his temper and scattered the evil journeyman Orlick among the horseshoes in this scene from Great Expectations. The jealous Orlick didn't want to see Pip be an apprentice. (Image scanned by Philip V. Allingham of Victorian Web.)
It's hard not to love a story that has characters with names like "Uncle Pumblechook". I'm sure there must be an event horse somewhere with that name--or there will be soon!

Here comes trouble, also known as Magwitch, an escaped convict who threatens to rip Pip's liver out if he doesn't bring him a rasp. Why does he need a resp? You'll have to watch the film or read the book! (PBS press photo)
Dickens introduces his readers to Magwitch in one of the most unforgettable descriptions of a character ever written:
"A fearful man, all in coarse grey, with a great iron on his leg. A man with no hat, and with broken shoes, and with an old rag tied round his head. A man who had been soaked in water, and smothered in mud, and lamed by stones, and cut by flints, and stung by nettles, and torn by briars; who limped, and shivered, and glared and growled; and whose teeth chattered in his head as he seized me by the chin."
And that's just the beginning of the book.

I'm not a director, but I think the 1946 black-and-white version of Great Expectations would be hard to beat. Thanks to archive.org, you can view the entire David Lean film of Great Expectations online or even download it.

David Lean received an Academy Award nomination for directing this film and went on to create great film classics such as Doctor Zhivago. Let's hope the BBC version is half as good as that one.

In this old illustration from the book, Joe Gargery hammered on to repair the handcuffs that would be used to capture escaped convict Magwitch, while the soldiers who commandeered his services helped themselves to his special bottle of Christmas port. Some thank you, but the calm blacksmith wisely kept his eyes on his anvil.
If for no other reason, watch Great Expectations to teach your children and remind yourself that you should be careful about wishing to be someone you're not. Pip's unexpected opportunity to become a young gentleman causes him to turn his back on the forge and the one person who has something to teach him, about both working and living with honor and faith.

A comment about Joe from a review in The Telegraph sums it up: "Joe Gargery has a recessive role to play as the novel unfolds. But there he is, smudged with soot from the forge, a distant bedrock of compassion. If you finish the book without caring for Joe quite deeply, pop in a thermometer: you may need defrosting."

And if you don't get the message of Great Expectations, you just might be doomed to a life like Orlick's.

Art: illustrator Chris Riddell's characterization of Joe Gargery from the Observor's gallery of characters in Dickens' novels.

PBS.org says that part 1 of Great Expectations airs on Sunday, April 1 and part 2 on Sunday, April 8. PBS will also stream part 1 of Great Expectations beginning April 2 on its Masterpiece web site.
 
© Fran Jurga and Hoofcare Publishing; Fran Jurga's Hoof Blog is a between-issues news service for subscribers to Hoofcare and Lameness Journal. Please, no use without permission. You only need to ask. This blog may be read online at the blog page, checked via RSS feed, or received via a digest-type email (requires signup in box at top right of blog page). To subscribe to Hoofcare and Lameness (the journal), please visit the main site, www.hoofcare.com, where many educational products and media related to equine lameness and hoof science can be found. Questions or problems with this blog? Send email to blog@hoofcare.com.  
Follow Hoofcare + Lameness on Twitter: @HoofcareJournal
Read this blog's headlines in your Facebook news feed when you "like" the Hoofcare + Lameness Facebook Page
 
Disclosure of Material Connection: I have not received any direct compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned, other than Hoofcare Publishing. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Monday, March 19, 2012

NTRA's New-Look Thoroughbred Horseshoes: Fantasy Footwear Video


This video makes you wonder who created that prototype for the NTRA! No additional information is available...so far although it looks sort of like a plastic-coated Easy. It looks like these commercials may be destined to air on national television. 


They come in Zenyatta's silks colors!


Call 978 281 3222 to place your order; ships immediately and you'll use it often!


© Fran Jurga and Hoofcare Publishing; Fran Jurga's Hoof Blog is a between-issues news service for subscribers to Hoofcare and Lameness Journal. Please, no use without permission. You only need to ask. This blog may be read online at the blog page, checked via RSS feed, or received via a digest-type email (requires signup in box at top right of blog page). To subscribe to Hoofcare and Lameness (the journal), please visit the main site, www.hoofcare.com, where many educational products and media related to equine lameness and hoof science can be found. Questions or problems with this blog? Send email to blog@hoofcare.com.  
Follow Hoofcare + Lameness on Twitter: @HoofcareJournal
Read this blog's headlines on the Hoofcare + Lameness Facebook Page
 
Disclosure of Material Connection: I have not received any direct compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned, other than Hoofcare Publishing. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Scott Simpson: Official Obituary and Memorial Information

O F F I C I A L  O B I T U A R Y

James Scott Simpson (1933 - 2012)


On March 1, 2012, the Hoof Blog reported the death of farrier J. Scott Simpson and published a personal tribute to Scott and his role in American horseshoeing. We promised to report more details when they became officially available and today we are able to do that. We are posting here the official obituary for Scott Simpson, which appears today in the Bozeman Daily Chronicle in Montana.

Of special importance is that Scott's family has set up a memorial page for him on the Wickenburg Funeral Home web site and they would like to invite everyone who knew Scott to visit the page and record their memories. You can also upload photos of Scott to the site.


Finally, a memorial service is planned for Scott, tentatively in late May, in Bozeman, Montana. More details about that will be announced later.

This information will remain on the Hoof Blog for anyone to access at any time.

The following text is as it was prepared by Scott's family.

James Scott Simpson of Bozeman passed away February 29, 2012, but not until he'd completed nine holes of golf in the desert near his winter home in Wickenburg, Arizona.

He was born March 27, 1933 in Prescott, Arizona, to Kenneth and Helen Simpson. The family soon moved to San Diego, California, where he attended Sweetwater High School in National City. At the age of 13 he learned to fly, sometimes washing airplanes in exchange for flying lessons. In later years he became a Certified Flight Instructor.

He served as a Staff Sergeant in the U.S. Army National Guard, receiving various awards for marksmanship. He also worked in the aerospace industry at General Dynamics Aeronautics. Around this time he met and married Evelyn Moore, with whom he started a family and reared five children.

He acquired his first horse at the age of 18, which established the direction the rest of his life was to take. He became skilled first as a cowboy and rodeo rider, then as a horseshoer, graduating with his best friend Mike Williams from the California Polytechnic horseshoeing school in 1959.

After 17 years as a professional farrier, he founded the Horseshoeing School at Montana State University in 1970. He later became the instructor of farrier science at Walla Walla Community College in Washington, and at his own Northwestern School of Horseshoeing.

During this time he remained active as a horseshoer and horseman, working in virtually every activity and discipline in the horse industry, including Thoroughbred racing, harness racing, hunter jumpers, dressage horses, working cow and ranch horses, pro rodeo, and as a horse show judge.

He served as president of the American Farrier's Association, and received the AFA's Outstanding Educator, Outstanding Clinician and Outstanding Journalism awards. In 1999 he was inducted into the International Horseshoeing Hall of Fame at Churchill Downs in Louisville, Kentucky. His teaching and expertise took him to places such as Australia, Hawaii, Japan, Russia, Alaska and Canada, as well as much of the continental U.S.

He was the author of numerous books on horseshoeing, the culmination of which is his magnum opus, The Contemporary Horseshoer: Shoeing Horses in the Twenty-First Century. He also wrote numerous articles in journals and magazines ranging from Western Horseman to Plane & Pilot.

He also helped to establish certification for professional farriers, developed the "Eagle Eye" principal of shaping a horseshoe to an individual horse's foot, and invented numerous implements for farriers, horsemen, and aviators.

Scott was a man of wildly diverse interests, whose passions included tennis, golf, cross-country skiing, fly fishing, big game hunting, and music, he being a gifted singer. With the Last Chance Ranch Hands he recorded Cowboy Up, a collection of traditional cowboy songs that has enjoyed much popularity.

Scott was a passionate and devout Christian, being a member of Valley of Flowers Catholic Church in Belgrade. He refused to answer the phone while having his afternoon devotions, or while watching Jeopardy! His teaching, mentoring, generosity, humor, commitment to excellence and love, touched many hundreds of lives over the years.

He is preceded in death by his father, Kenneth Simpson; his mother, Helen; his brother, Michael, Evelyn, and great-grandson Elijah. He is survived by his five children, Mary (George) Smith, Blake (Carmen) Simpson, Ben (Corrine) Simpson, Frank (Tamilla) Simpson and daughter Howie Simpson. Scott had seven grandchildren, Megan Smith-Jones, Christina Smith, Jeffrey Simpson, Michelle Simpson, Rachel Simpson, Mercy Anna Simpson, John Scott Simpson, and great-grandsons, Brendan and Joseph Jones.

A memorial service is planned for the end of May.


Make it happen! Email adopportunity@hoofcare.com or call 978 281 3222


© Fran Jurga and Hoofcare Publishing; Fran Jurga's Hoof Blog is a between-issues news service for subscribers to Hoofcare and Lameness Journal. Please, no use without permission. You only need to ask. This blog may be read online at the blog page, checked via RSS feed, or received via a digest-type email (requires signup in box at top right of blog page). To subscribe to Hoofcare and Lameness (the journal), please visit the main site, www.hoofcare.com, where many educational products and media related to equine lameness and hoof science can be found. Questions or problems with this blog? Send email to blog@hoofcare.com.  
Follow Hoofcare + Lameness on Twitter: @HoofcareJournal
Read this blog's headlines on the Hoofcare + Lameness Facebook Page
 
Disclosure of Material Connection: I have not received any direct compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned, other than Hoofcare Publishing. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Saturday, March 17, 2012

St Patrick's Day Guinness Commercials: Celebrate, Video-Style!

Happy St. Patrick's Day! Whatever you do today, there's a chance you might run into some of the products or culture spawned by the Guinness Brewery of Dublin, Ireland.

It wasn't enough for Guinness to have a cult-like following among pub-goers around the world, they also created a media culture with 50 years of television ads that celebrate more than just their deep, dark stout. They celebrate life--as only the Irish could portray and celebrate it, in every corner the world.

Wait for the videos to load--if you have a slow connection, it might take a while. Can you guess which one contains an anvil?

Luckily for us, Guinness likes horses. They show up regularly in ads and commercials, or even at the gates of the ancient brewery in Dublin.

Thank you, Ireland, for making today a holiday--and for making Guinness ads that are such an inspiration, we all want to be part of it.


Border collie Guinness: Created intentionally to go viral via social media, this commercial has its own movie-like trailer. It is only two weeks old and it's already had almost two million views on YouTube.


Guinness is good for you: In the 1950s, Guinness was promoted as a health food. It still has its devotees, just ask Zenyatta and other top racehorses who have had a daily ration of stout poured on their feed.


CG-Guinness: The Irish rugby team reveals its roots (definitely a favorite)


Pub culture Guinness: A stout history of barroom pool.



Polar Guinness: Someone needs to make a movie about Ireland's Tom Crean. He survived both the Scott and Shackleton expeditions, walked across the Ice Shelf (as in this commercial), was named a British hero and then retreated from public view to run a pub in County Kerry. At least Guinness made his legend the star of a commercial.


Before you were (probably) born: A Guinness-is-good-for-you poster comes alive for early television, circa 1955; this must be one of the earliest commercials


Global Guinness: I've been in other countries during the Super Bowl and I can definitely relate to this one. Maybe you were with me. Who could forget explaining American football in that cafe in Geneva, or that mountain-top bar in St Barth's where some guys had to sit on the roof and point a tv antenna toward Puerto Rico hoping to pick up a CBS signal...


Wild west Guinness: An all-American tough-guy fantasy for horse friends; this one might be my all-time favorite commercial although it doesn't quite say "Guinness" to me, for some reason. I like it anyway!


Just silly Guinness: because you knew I'd find an anvil buried in all these Guinness ads for my farrier friends. I think this is the ad campaign for the American market, but I wish they'd run their global ads.

I also wish that the creative minds of Guinness could be promoting horse racing in the USA. We need that kind of creativity, humor and especially their sense to find the spectacular in the everyday things around us.

There are dozens and dozens of great Guinness ads. What's your favorite? There's even a "Guinnessads" channel on YouTube. Post the link in the comments section to share your favorites or vote for the best one posted here.

And don't forget these that are already on The Hoof Blog:

The Guinness horses surfer ad
The Guinness Christmas commercial

Thanks, Ireland and thanks, Guinness!
Order world's best anatomy reference for lower leg / foot of the horse: 978 281 3222.

© Fran Jurga and Hoofcare Publishing; Fran Jurga's Hoof Blog is a between-issues news service for subscribers to Hoofcare and Lameness Journal. Please, no use without permission. You only need to ask. This blog may be read online at the blog page, checked via RSS feed, or received via a digest-type email (requires signup in box at top right of blog page). To subscribe to Hoofcare and Lameness (the journal), please visit the main site, www.hoofcare.com, where many educational products and media related to equine lameness and hoof science can be found. Questions or problems with this blog? Send email to blog@hoofcare.com.  
Follow Hoofcare + Lameness on Twitter: @HoofcareJournal
Read this blog's headlines on the Hoofcare + Lameness Facebook Page
 
Disclosure of Material Connection: I have not received any direct compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned, other than Hoofcare Publishing. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Friday, March 16, 2012

Cushing's Disease: Pergolide Compounding Update as FDA Issues Statement on Use of Pergolide Products for Animals

C0004P0063

 This statement may also be read on the FDA web site. This statement was posted on March 16, 2012.

On September 7, 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA or Agency) approved a new animal drug application (NADA) for a product containing pergolide mesylate (NADA 141-331) marketed under the trade name Prascend Tablets for the control of the clinical signs associated with Cushing’s Disease in horses. Consistent with this approval, the Agency is announcing that it intends to consider the factors set forth in Compliance Policy Guide (CPG) Sec. 608.400 - Compounding of Drugs for Use in Animals (CPG 7125.40) in evaluating potential enforcement actions involving the compounding of pergolide products for animal use from bulk active pharmaceutical ingredient (API).


In the past, veterinarians prescribed human pergolide products to treat Cushing’s Disease in horses under the “extralabel” use provisions of the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. However, in May 2007, the human pergolide products were removed from the market due to concerns about cardiac side effects in humans. At that time FDA stated that it would work with the sponsors of approved human products and others to ensure that pergolide remained available to treat Cushing’s Syndrome in horses until a new animal drug application was approved for that use. FDA stated that this would include, among other things, exercising enforcement discretion as appropriate over the pharmacy compounding of pergolide for use in animals.


Consistent with our previous statement, based on the approval of Prascend, FDA intends to apply the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act requirements regarding new animal drugs to animal drugs containing pergolide that are compounded from bulk API in accordance with CPG 608.400.

The preceding text is the message published today by the FDA.

In Monday's Federal Register, the change becomes official and the verbiage is a little more clear. It includes this summary statement:

SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of an original new animal drug application (NADA) filed by Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica, Inc. The NADA provides for the veterinary prescription use of pergolide mesylate tablets in horses for the control of clinical signs associated with Pituitary Pars Intermedia Dysfunction (Equine Cushing’s Disease).

Download the full Federal Register documentation in PDF format.

Photo of pony with Cushings disease at top courtesy of University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science.

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© Fran Jurga and Hoofcare Publishing; Fran Jurga's Hoof Blog is a between-issues news service for subscribers to Hoofcare and Lameness Journal. Please, no use without permission. You only need to ask. This blog may be read online at the blog page, checked via RSS feed, or received via a digest-type email (requires signup in box at top right of blog page). To subscribe to Hoofcare and Lameness (the journal), please visit the main site, www.hoofcare.com, where many educational products and media related to equine lameness and hoof science can be found. Questions or problems with this blog? Send email to blog@hoofcare.com.  
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Disclosure of Material Connection: I have not received any direct compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned, other than Hoofcare Publishing. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.

Laminitis Research Highlights Grayson Jockey Club Foundation's Research Lists for 2012


The Grayson-Jockey Club Research Foundation announced today that the charitable organization will fund 16 projects in 2012, totaling $845,646. The research includes the launch of eight new projects, continuation of eight projects entering their second year, and the Storm Cat Career Development Award.

Of special interest is the announcement that a project on laminitis has received the Elastikon™ Equine Research Award. This is funded in part through a contribution by Johnson & Johnson’s Consumer Products Company, manufacturer of Elastikon tape and other equine products.

Of particular interest are the following projects:

LAMINITIS STUDIES

1. Digital Hypothermia in Laminitis: Timing and Signaling
Dr. James Belknap, The Ohio State University (Second Year)

Dr. Belknap
The most recent figures from a study involving the USDA and State Veterinary Medical Officers project that at any given time laminitis affects 8 of every 1,000 horses in the United States. Based on the American Horse Council survey that there are 9.5 million horses in the nation, that would indicate 76,000 horses being affected at any given time. Of those affected, the USDA survey found that 4.7% died or were euthanized, or about 3,572 deaths from laminitis annually.

The authors of this project report that “an integrated research effort over the last decade has enhanced the current understanding of the pathophysiology of equine sepsis-related laminitis (one of numerous causes of the disease). This has mirrored progression of sepsis research in human medicine by moving from (an earlier) concept . . .to determining that a marked inflammatory injury takes place and is likely to play a prominent role in tissue injury and subsequent failure.” However, there have been persistent failure of systemic therapies for organ/laminar injury in both human and equine medicine. One advantage laminitis presents is that it effects the hoof rather than visceral organs, lending itself to artificial cooling more readily.

In a present project funded by the Foundation, digital hypothermia (cooling of the hoof) prior to onset of carbohydrate overload-induced equine sepsis resulted in dramatic decrease in laminar inflammatory signaling. The next goal is to find pharmaceutical therapies which can accomplish the same without the cumbersome aspects of maintaining constant hypothermia to the equine hoof (hooves).

2. Laminar Energy Failure in Supporting-Limb Laminitis
Dr. Andrew Van Eps, University of Queensland (Second Year)

Dr. Van Eps
A frequent and disheartening result of injury repair is that the leg opposite the one injured develops laminitis. This is known as supporting-limb laminitis and is what eventually caused Barbaro to be euthanized. Although it is a common occurrence, the mechanisms of the malady have not been established.

Dr. Pollitt
This project is headed by a young researcher, Dr Andrew Van Eps, but the co-investigators are world renowned Drs. Dean Richardson and Chris Pollitt.

The project involves testing the hypothesis that supporting-limb laminitis is a result of reduced blood supply to the connection between hoof and bone (lamellar tissue). Further, that the blood supply in normal circumstances is encouraged by a regular loading and unloading of the legs and hooves (alternating which one is bearing the most weight). Injury to one leg interrupts that alternating pattern.

Dr. Richardson
The researchers will test the hypothesis with a state of the art, minimally invasive technique known as tissue microdialysis in conjunction with three dimensional computed tomography to develop effective methods of preventing or minimizing lamellar tissue energy failure. Comments in the Research Advisory Committee evaluations included “may well provide immediately applicable strategies to prevent supporting-limb laminitis” and “really nice grant, new idea about a devastating problem.”

Support-limb laminitis is a special area of research interest for the researchers funded by the Grayson Jockey Club Foundation. It is believed to be a unique form of the disease that is precipitated by prolonged weightbearing on one hind limb or one front limb, caused by the opposite (injured) limb's inability to bear weight after surgery or injury. Tragically, the overburdened "good" or "supporting" limb develops laminitis in this scenario. (Hoofcare + Lameness photo)

3. Laminar Signaling in Supporting-Limb Laminitis
Dr. James Belknap, The Ohio State University– First Year (2 Year Grant)

A recent USDA study indicates that approximately 1% of all horses in the USA suffer from laminitis at any given time, and approximately 5% of those animals die or are euthanized while many others remain crippled. Of the conditions which create laminitis, the development of the disease in the supporting limb of an already injured horse is one of the worst, since it is believed that 50% of those cases result in euthanasia.

The author reports that while there are hundreds of published papers in the literature about other forms of laminitis, reports on supporting-limb laminitis are restricted to clinical reports and case studies.

This project will “introduce a novel, non-painful model of supporting-limb laminitis and will allow for cutting edge bench research techniques to not only (1) test the current hypotheses on the cause of laminar failure, but also (2) provide an unbiased technique to determine the cellular events that occur . . .”

The investigator has performed a number of laminitis project for Grayson and the USDA, and has a well developed set of tools and techniques including laser micro-dissection of frozen laminar cells and an advanced “functional genomic” technique called RNA-Seq. By applying these techniques that have previously characterized laminitis caused by sepsis or metabolic syndrome to support limb laminitis, we will get our first understanding of what kind of drugs and treaments might prevent it.

This grant was selected by the board to receive the sixth annual Elastikon™ Equine Research Award.

4. Stem Cell Homing after IV Regional Limb Perfusion
Dr. Alan Nixon, Cornell University (First Year of Two-Year Grant)

Dr. Nixon
“The initial fervor associated with stem cell therapies has been tempered by mediocre clinical results,” states Dr. Nixon, long recognized as a key leader in quest to maximize use of stem cells. “More can be done, including pre-differentiation, gene-directed lineage targeting, and more efficient delivery.” This proposal will deliver by “local vein injection, to back-flow to bowed tendon and other disease conditions such as founder and traumatic arthritis.”

Transplanted cells then exert normalizing and restorative effects . . .” The long-range goal is to provide a simplified approach to stem cell therapy. We cannot do this without verification of cell homing and impact. (The project) will map stem cell distribution in the tendons, ligaments, and joints of the forelimb after direct venous injection.”

LAMENESS STUDIES

1. AAV-IRAP Gene Therapy to Prevent Osteoarthritis
Dr. Laurie Goodrich, Colorado State University (Second Year)

Dr, Goodrich
Osteoarthritis is a common affliction in horses, and current methods of treatment are effective only in reducing the pain, at best. This proposal will utilize gene therapy, which is a technique in which cells can be genetically modified or “re-programmed” to produce beneficial protein that will allow cartilage to heal. The initials in the project title stand for Adenoassociated Virus and Interluken Receptor Antagonist Protein. If cells in the joint could be re-programmed to produce IRAP, the devastating effects of joint inflammation could be halted and the progress of osteoarthritis could be reversed.

These researchers’ preliminary work utilizing AAV-IRAP suggests that cells of joints are easily re-programmed to produce beneficial protein. The aims of this project is to define the most appropriate dose of AAV-IRAP that will result in effective levels and answer the question of whether this approach can prevent osteoarthritis in the horse.

2. Investigation of Cell and Growth-Factor Dependent Tenogenesis
Dr. Martin A. Vidal, University of California-Davis (Second Year)

Dr. Vidal
The crux of this study is to test preliminary indications that a newly developed in vitro tendon/ligament culture model will prove effective at determining the optimal cell type from bone marrow, fat tissue, umbilical cord, tendons, ligaments, and muscle to use in tendon and ligament repair. The model also will allow investigators to learn the early molecular and cellular signals in tendon and ligament tissue formation.

The author states that current methods of healing result in inferior scar tissue and re-injury rates ranging from 23% to 67%. Transforming growth factor (TGF) combined with platelet rich plasma will be utilized, and tests will be done on how they affect tissue growth, strength, and composition. ”

3. Stem Generation of Equine Induced Pluripotent Cells for Regenerative Therapy
Dr. Lisa Fortier, Cornell University (Second Year)

Dr. Fortier
Stem cell based therapies are among avenues being tested with the goal of tendon cell regeneration to address tendonitis. The types of stem cells used so far may improve the structure of tendon healing, but appear to have limited regenerative ability or are limited due to potential issues of immune rejection.

The author explains that, “ . . . this proposal is to generate induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) from equine adult dermal fibroblasts. iPS cells are the only stem cells that are both pluripotenent and autogenous, making them the most useful for clinical application. The expectation is that the results of the studies in this proposal will provide the first published description of the generation and characterization of equine iPS cells.” This is part of a process of testing the overall hypothesis that equine iPS cells will enhance tendon regeneration in cases of tendonitis.

Also, “the technical expertise gained in this study could be used in the future to generate autogenous iPS cells for use in equine cartilage and neuronal regeneration studies.”

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© Fran Jurga and Hoofcare Publishing; Fran Jurga's Hoof Blog is a between-issues news service for subscribers to Hoofcare and Lameness Journal. Please, no use without permission. You only need to ask. This blog may be read online at the blog page, checked via RSS feed, or received via a digest-type email (requires signup in box at top right of blog page). To subscribe to Hoofcare and Lameness (the journal), please visit the main site, www.hoofcare.com, where many educational products and media related to equine lameness and hoof science can be found. Questions or problems with this blog? Send email to blog@hoofcare.com.  
Follow Hoofcare + Lameness on Twitter: @HoofcareJournal
Read this blog's headlines on the Hoofcare + Lameness Facebook Page
 
Disclosure of Material Connection: I have not received any direct compensation for writing this post. I have no material connection to the brands, products, or services that I have mentioned, other than Hoofcare Publishing. I am disclosing this in accordance with the Federal Trade Commission’s 16 CFR, Part 255: Guides Concerning the Use of Endorsements and Testimonials in Advertising.